Survival skills in Campbell are techniques that a person may use in order to sustain life in any type of natural environment or built environment. These techniques are meant to provide basic necessities for human life which include water, food, and shelter. The skills also support proper knowledge and interactions with animals and plants to promote the sustaining of life over a period of time. Practicing with a survival suit An immersion suit, or survival suit is a special type of waterproof dry suit that protects the wearer from hypothermia from immersion in cold water, after abandoning a sinking or capsized vessel, especially in the open ocean.
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Survival skills are often associated with the need to survive in a disaster situation in Campbell .
 Survival skills are often basic ideas and abilities that ancients invented and used themselves for thousands of years.
 Outdoor activities such as hiking, backpacking, horseback riding, fishing, and hunting all require basic wilderness survival skills, especially in handling emergency situations. Bush-craft and primitive living are most often self-implemented, but require many of the same skills.
Jump to navigation Jump to search A grow light or plant light is an artificial light source, generally an electric light, designed to stimulate plant growth by emitting a light appropriate for photosynthesis. Grow lights are used in applications where there is either no naturally occurring light, or where supplemental light is required. For example, in the winter months when the available hours of daylight may be insufficient for the desired plant growth, lights are used to extend the time the plants receive light. If plants do not receive enough light, they will grow long and spindly. Grow lights either attempt to provide a light spectrum similar to that of the sun, or to provide a spectrum that is more tailored to the needs of the plants being cultivated. Outdoor conditions are mimicked with varying colour, temperatures and spectral outputs from the grow light, as well as varying the lumen output (intensity) of the lamps. Depending on the type of plant being cultivated, the stage of cultivation (e.g. the germination/vegetative phase or the flowering/fruiting phase), and the photoperiod required by the plants, specific ranges of spectrum, luminous efficacy and colour temperature are desirable for use with specific plants and time periods. Russian botanist Andrei Famintsyn was the first to use artificial light for plant growing and research (1868). Grow lights are used for horticulture, indoor gardening, plant propagation and food production, including indoor hydroponics and aquatic plants. Although most grow lights are used on an industrial level, they can also be used in households. According to the inverse-square law, the intensity of light radiating from a point source (in this case a bulb) that reaches a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the surface's distance from the source (if an object is twice as far away, it receives only a quarter the light) which is a serious hurdle for indoor growers, and many techniques are employed to use light as efficiently as possible. Reflectors are thus often used in the lights to maximize light efficiency. Plants or lights are moved as close together as possible so that they receive equal lighting and that all light coming from the lights falls on the plants rather than on the surrounding area. Example of an HPS grow light set up in a grow tent. The setup includes a carbon filter to remove odors, and ducting to exhaust hot air using a powerful exhaust fan. A range of bulb types can be used as grow lights, such as incandescents, fluorescent lights, high-intensity discharge lamps (HID), and light-emitting diodes (LED). Today, the most widely used lights for professional use are HIDs and fluorescents. Indoor flower and vegetable growers typically use high-pressure sodium (HPS/SON) and metal halide (MH) HID lights, but fluorescents and LEDs are replacing metal halides due to their efficiency and economy. Metal halide lights are regularly used for the vegetative phase of plant growth, as they emit larger amounts of blue and ultraviolet radiation. With the introduction of ceramic metal halide lighting and full-spectrum metal halide lighting, they are increasingly being utilized as an exclusive source of light for both vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Blue spectrum light may trigger a greater vegetative response in plants. High-pressure sodium lights are also used as a single source of light throughout the vegetative and reproductive stages. As well, they may be used as an amendment to full-spectrum lighting during the reproductive stage. Red spectrum light may trigger a greater flowering response in plants. If high-pressure sodium lights are used for the vegetative phase, plants grow slightly more quickly, but will have longer internodes, and may be longer overall. In recent years LED technology has been introduced into the grow light market. By designing an indoor grow light using diodes, specific wavelengths of light can be produced. NASA has tested LED grow lights for their high efficiency in growing food in space for extraterrestrial colonization. Findings showed that plants are affected by light in the red, green and blue parts of the visible light spectrum. While fluorescent lighting used to be the most common type of indoor grow light, HID lights are now the most popular. High intensity discharge lamps have a high lumen-per-watt efficiency. There are several different types of HID lights including mercury vapor, metal halide, high pressure sodium and conversion bulbs. Metal halide and HPS lamps produce a color spectrum that is somewhat comparable to the sun and can be used to grow plants. Mercury vapor lamps were the first type of HIDs and were widely used for street lighting, but when it comes to indoor gardening they produce a relatively poor spectrum for plant growth so they have been mostly replaced by other types of HIDs for growing plants. All HID grow lights require a ballast to operate, and each ballast has a particular wattage. Popular HID wattages include 150W, 250W, 400W, 600W and 1000W. Of all the sizes, 600W HID lights are the most electrically efficient as far as light produced, followed by 1000W. A 600W HPS produces 7% more light (watt-for-watt) than a 1000W HPS. Although all HID lamps work on the same principle, the different types of bulbs have different starting and voltage requirements, as well as different operating characteristics and physical shape. Because of this a bulb won't work properly unless it's using a matching ballast, even if the bulb will physically screw in. In addition to producing lower levels of light, mismatched bulbs and ballasts will stop working early, or may even burn out immediately. 400W Metal halide bulb compared to smaller incandescent bulb Metal halide bulbs are a type of HID light that emit light in the blue and violet parts of the light spectrum, which is similar to the light that is available outdoors during spring. Because their light mimics the color spectrum of the sun, some growers find that plants look more pleasing under a metal halide than other types of HID lights such as the HPS which distort the color of plants. Therefore, it's more common for a metal halide to be used when the plants are on display in the home (for example with ornamental plants) and natural color is preferred. Metal halide bulbs need to be replaced about once a year, compared to HPS lights which last twice as long. Metal halide lamps are widely used in the horticultural industry and are well-suited to supporting plants in earlier developmental stages by promoting stronger roots, better resistance against disease and more compact growth. The blue spectrum of light encourages compact, leafy growth and may be better suited to growing vegetative plants with lots of foliage. A metal halide bulb produces 60-125 lumens/watt, depending on the wattage of the bulb. They are now being made for digital ballasts in a pulse start version, which have higher electrical efficiency (up to 110 lumens per watt) and faster warmup. One common example of a pulse start metal halide is the ceramic metal halide (CMH). Pulse start metal halide bulbs can come in any desired spectrum from cool white (7000 K) to warm white (3000 K) and even ultraviolet-heavy (10,000 K). Ceramic metal halide (CMH) lamps are a relatively new type of HID lighting, and the technology is referred to by a few names when it comes to grow lights, including ceramic discharge metal halide (CDM), ceramic arc metal halide. Ceramic metal halide lights are started with a pulse-starter, just like other "pulse-start" metal halides. The discharge of a ceramic metal halide bulb is contained in a type of ceramic material known as polycrystalline alumina (PCA), which is similar to the material used for an HPS. PCA reduces sodium loss, which in turn reduces color shift and variation compared to standard MH bulbs. Horticultural CDM offerings from companies such as Philips have proven to be effective sources of growth light for medium-wattage applications. Combination HPS/MH lights combine a metal halide and a high-pressure sodium in the same bulb, providing both red and blue spectrums in a single HID lamp. The combination of blue metal halide light and red high-pressure sodium light is an attempt to provide a very wide spectrum within a single lamp. This allows for a single bulb solution throughout the entire life cycle of the plant, from vegetative growth through flowering. There are potential tradeoffs for the convenience of a single bulb in terms of yield. There are however some qualitative benefits that come for the wider light spectrum. An HPS (High Pressure Sodium) grow light bulb in an air-cooled reflector with hammer finish. The yellowish light is the signature color produced by an HPS. High-pressure sodium lights are a more efficient type of HID lighting than metal halides. HPS bulbs emit light in the yellow/red visible light as well as small portions of all other visible light. Since HPS grow lights deliver more energy in the red part of the light spectrum, they may promote blooming and fruiting. They are used as a supplement to natural daylight in greenhouse lighting and full-spectrum lighting(metal halide) or, as a standalone source of light for indoors/grow chambers. HPS grow lights are sold in the following sizes: 150W, 250W, 400W, 600W and 1000W. Of all the sizes, 600W HID lights are the most electrically efficient as far as light produced, followed by 1000W. A 600W HPS produces 7% more light (watt-for-watt) than a 1000W HPS. A 600W High Pressure Sodium bulbAn HPS bulb produces 60-140 lumens/watt, depending on the wattage of the bulb. Plants grown under HPS lights tend to elongate from the lack of blue/ultraviolet radiation. Modern horticultural HPS lamps have a much better adjusted spectrum for plant growth. The majority of HPS lamps while providing good growth, offer poor color rendering index (CRI) rendering. As a result, the yellowish light of an HPS can make monitoring plant health indoors more difficult. CRI isn't an issue when HPS lamps are used as supplemental lighting in greenhouses which make use of natural daylight (which offsets the yellow light of the HPS). High-pressure sodium lights have a long usable bulb life, and six times more light output per watt of energy consumed than a standard incandescent grow light. Due to their high efficiency and the fact that plants grown in greenhouses get all the blue light they need naturally, these lights are the preferred supplemental greenhouse lights. But, in the higher latitudes, there are periods of the year where sunlight is scarce, and additional sources of light are indicated for proper growth. HPS lights may cause distinctive infrared and optical signatures, which can attract insects or other species of pests; these may in turn threaten the plants being grown. High-pressure sodium lights emit a lot of heat, which can cause leggier growth, although this can be controlled by using special air-cooled bulb reflectors or enclosures. Conversion bulbs are manufactured so they work with either a MH or HPS ballast. A grower can run an HPS conversion bulb on a MH ballast, or a MH conversion bulb on a HPS ballast. The difference between the ballasts is an HPS ballast has an igniter which ignites the sodium in an HPS bulb, while a MH ballast does not. Because of this, all electrical ballasts can fire MH bulbs, but only a Switchable or HPS ballast can fire an HPS bulb without a conversion bulb. Usually a metal halide conversion bulb will be used in an HPS ballast since the MH conversion bulbs are more common. A switchable ballast is an HID ballast can be used with either a metal halide or an HPS bulb of equivalent wattage. So a 600W Switchable ballast would work with either a 600W MH or HPS. Growers use these fixtures for propagating and vegetatively growing plants under the metal halide, then switching to a high-pressure sodium bulb for the fruiting or flowering stage of plant growth. To change between the lights, only the bulb needs changing and a switch needs to be set to the appropriate setting. Two plants growing under an LED grow light LED grow lights are composed of light-emitting diodes, usually in a casing with a heat sink and built-in fans. LED grow lights do not usually require a separate ballast and can be plugged directly into a standard electrical socket. LED grow lights vary in color depending on the intended use. It is known from the study of photomorphogenesis that green, red, far-red and blue light spectra have an effect on root formation, plant growth, and flowering, but there are not enough scientific studies or field-tested trials using LED grow lights to recommended specific color ratios for optimal plant growth under LED grow lights. It has been shown that many plants will grow normally if given both red and blue light. However, many studies indicate that red and blue light only provides the most cost efficient method of growth, plant growth is still better under light supplemented with green. White LED grow lights provide a full spectrum of light designed to mimic natural light, providing plants a balanced spectrum of red, blue and green. The spectrum used varies, however, white LED grow lights are designed to emit similar amounts of red and blue light with the added green light to appear white. White LED grow lights are often used for supplemental lighting in home and office spaces. A large number of plant species have been assessed in greenhouse trials to make sure plants have higher quality in biomass and biochemical ingredients even higher or comparable with field conditions. Plant performance of mint, basil, lentil, lettuce, cabbage, parsley, carrot were measured by assessing health and vigor of plants and success in promoting growth. Promoting in profuse flowering of select ornamentals including primula, marigold, stock were also noticed. In tests conducted by Philips Lighting on LED grow lights to find an optimal light recipe for growing various vegetables in greenhouses, they found that the following aspects of light affects both plant growth (photosynthesis) and plant development (morphology): light intensity, total light over time, light at which moment of the day, light/dark period per day, light quality (spectrum), light direction and light distribution over the plants. However it's noted that in tests between tomatoes, mini cucumbers and bell peppers, the optimal light recipe was not the same for all plants, and varied depending on both the crop and the region, so currently they must optimize LED lighting in greenhouses based on trial and error. They've shown that LED light affects disease resistance, taste and nutritional levels, but as of 2014 they haven't found a practical way to use that information. Ficus plant grown under a white LED grow light. The diodes used in initial LED grow light designs were usually 1/3 watt to 1 watt in power. However, higher wattage diodes such as 3 watt and 5 watt diodes are now commonly used in LED grow lights. for highly compacted areas, COB chips between 10 watts and 100 watts can be used. Because of heat dissipation, these chips are often less efficient. LED grow lights should be kept at least 12 inches (30 cm) away from plants to prevent leaf burn. Historically, LED lighting was very expensive, but costs have greatly reduced over time, and their longevity has made them more popular. LED grow lights are often priced higher, watt-for-watt, than other LED lighting, due to design features that help them to be more energy efficient and last longer. In particular, because LED grow lights are relatively high power, LED grow lights are often equipped with cooling systems, as low temperature improves both the brightness and longevity. LEDs usually last for 50,000 - 90,000 hours until LM-70 is reached. Fluorescent grow light Fluorescent lights come in many form factors, including long, thin bulbs as well as smaller spiral shaped bulbs (compact fluorescent lights). Fluorescent lights are available in color temperatures ranging from 2700 K to 10,000 K. The luminous efficacy ranges from 30 lm/W to 90 lm/W. The two main types of fluorescent lights used for growing plants are the tube-style lights and compact fluorescent lights. Fluorescent grow lights are not as intense as HID lights and are usually used for growing vegetables and herbs indoors, or for starting seedlings to get a jump start on spring plantings. A ballast is needed to run these types of fluorescent lights. Standard fluorescent lighting comes in multiple form factors, including the T5, T8 and T12. The brightest version is the T5. The T8 and T12 are less powerful and are more suited to plants with lower light needs. High-output fluorescent lights produce twice as much light as standard fluorescent lights. A high-output fluorescent fixture has a very thin profile, making it useful in vertically limited areas. Fluorescents have an average usable life span of up to 20,000 hours. A fluorescent grow light produces 33-100 lumens/watt, depending on the form factor and wattage. Dual spectrum compact fluorescent grow light. Actual length is about 40 cm (16 in) Standard Compact Fluorescent Light Compact Fluorescent lights (CFLs) are smaller versions of fluorescent lights that were originally designed as pre-heat lamps, but are now available in rapid-start form. CFLs have largely replaced incandescent light bulbs in households because they last longer and are much more electrically efficient. In some cases, CFLs are also used as grow lights. Like standard fluorescent lights, they are useful for propagation and situations where relatively low light levels are needed. While standard CFLs in small sizes can be used to grow plants, there are also now CFL lamps made specifically for growing plants. Often these larger compact fluorescent bulbs are sold with specially designed reflectors that direct light to plants, much like HID lights. Common CFL grow lamp sizes include 125W, 200W, 250W and 300W. Unlike HID lights, CFLs fit in a standard mogul light socket and don't need a separate ballast. Compact fluorescent bulbs are available in warm/red (2700 K), full spectrum or daylight (5000 K) and cool/blue (6500 K) versions. Warm red spectrum is recommended for flowering, and cool blue spectrum is recommended for vegetative growth. Usable life span for compact fluorescent grow lights is about 10,000 hours. A CFL produces 44-80 lumens/watt, depending on the wattage of the bulb. Examples of lumens and lumens/watt for different size CFLs: Cold Cathode Fluorescent Light (CCFL) A cold cathode is a cathode that is not electrically heated by a filament. A cathode may be considered "cold" if it emits more electrons than can be supplied by thermionic emissionalone. It is used in gas-discharge lamps, such as neon lamps, discharge tubes, and some types of vacuum tube. The other type of cathode is a hot cathode, which is heated by electric current passing through a filament. A cold cathode does not necessarily operate at a low temperature: it is often heated to its operating temperature by other methods, such as the current passing from the cathode into the gas. The color temperatures of different grow lights Different grow lights produce different spectrums of light. Plant growth patterns can respond to the color spectrum of light, a process completely separate from photosynthesis known as photomorphogenesis. Natural daylight has a high color temperature (approximately 5000-5800 K). Visible light color varies according to the weather and the angle of the Sun, and specific quantities of light (measured in lumens) stimulate photosynthesis. Distance from the sun has little effect on seasonal changes in the quality and quantity of light and the resulting plant behavior during those seasons. The axis of the Earth is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit around the sun. During half of the year the north pole is tilted towards sun so the northern hemisphere gets nearly direct sunlight and the southern hemisphere gets oblique sunlight that must travel through more atmosphere before it reaches the Earth's surface. In the other half of the year, this is reversed. The color spectrum of visible light that the sun emits does not change, only the quantity (more during the summer and less in winter) and quality of overall light reaching the Earth's surface. Some supplemental LED grow lights in vertical greenhouses produce a combination of only red and blue wavelengths. The color rendering index facilitates comparison of how closely the light matches the natural color of regular sunlight. The ability of a plant to absorb light varies with species and environment, however, the general measurement for the light quality as it affects plants is the PAR value, or Photosynthetically Active Radiation. There have been several experiments using LEDs to grow plants, and it has been shown that plants need both red and blue light for healthy growth. From experiments it has been consistently found that the plants that are growing only under LEDs red (660 nm, long waves) spectrum growing poorly with leaf deformities, though adding a small amount of blue allows most plants to grow normally. Several reports suggest that a minimum blue light requirement of 15-30 µmol·m−2·s−1 is necessary for normal development in several plant species. LED panel light source used in an experiment on potato plant growth by NASA Many studies indicate that even with blue light added to red LEDs, plant growth is still better under white light, or light supplemented with green. Neil C Yorio demonstrated that by adding 10% blue light (400 to 500 nm) to the red light (660 nm) in LEDs, certain plants like lettuce and wheat grow normally, producing the same dry weight as control plants grown under full spectrum light. However, other plants like radish and spinach grow poorly, and although they did better under 10% blue light than red-only light, they still produced significantly lower dry weights compared to control plants under a full spectrum light. Yorio speculates there may be additional spectra of light that some plants need for optimal growth. Greg D. Goins examined the growth and seed yield of Arabidopsis plants grown from seed to seed under red LED lights with 0%, 1%, or 10% blue spectrum light. Arabidopsis plants grown under only red LEDS alone produced seeds, but had unhealthy leaves, and plants took twice as long to start flowering compared to the other plants in the experiment that had access to blue light. Plants grown with 10% blue light produced half the seeds of those grown under full spectrum, and those with 0% or 1% blue light produced one-tenth the seeds of the full spectrum plants. The seeds all germinated at a high rate under all light types tested. Hyeon-Hye Kim demonstrated that the addition of 24% green light (500-600 nm) to red and blue LEDs enhanced the growth of lettuce plants. These RGB treated plants not only produced higher dry and wet weight and greater leaf area than plants grown under just red and blue LEDs, they also produced more than control plants grown under cool white fluorescent lamps, which are the typical standard for full spectrum light in plant research. She reported that the addition of green light also makes it easier to see if the plant is healthy since leaves appear green and normal. However, giving nearly all green light (86%) to lettuce produced lower yields than all the other groups. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Biological Sciences research group has concluded that light sources consisting of more than 50% green cause reductions in plant growth, whereas combinations including up to 24% green enhance growth for some species. Green light has been shown to affect plant processes via both cryptochrome-dependent and cryptochrome-independent means. Generally, the effects of green light are the opposite of those directed by red and blue wavebands, and it's speculated that green light works in orchestration with red and blue. Absorbance spectra of free chlorophyll a (blue) and b (red) in a solvent. The action spectra of chlorophyll molecules are slightly modified in vivo depending on specific pigment-protein interactions. A plant's specific needs determine which lighting is most appropriate for optimum growth. If a plant does not get enough light, it will not grow, regardless of other conditions. Most plants use chlorophyll which mostly reflects green light, but absorbs red and blue light well. Vegetables grow best in strong sunlight, and to flourish indoors they need sufficient light levels, whereas foliage plants (e.g. Philodendron) grow in full shade and can grow normally with much lower light levels. Grow lights usage is dependent on the plant's phase of growth. Generally speaking, during the seedling/clone phase, plants should receive 16+ hours on, 8- hours off. The vegetative phase typically requires 18 hours on, and 6 hours off. During the final, flower stage of growth, keeping grow lights on for 12 hours on and 12 hours off is recommended. In addition, many plants also require both dark and light periods, an effect known as photoperiodism, to trigger flowering. Therefore, lights may be turned on or off at set times. The optimum photo/dark period ratio depends on the species and variety of plant, as some prefer long days and short nights and others prefer the opposite or intermediate "day lengths". Much emphasis is placed on photoperiod when discussing plant development. However, it is the number of hours of darkness that affects a plant’s response to day length. In general, a “short-day” is one in which the photoperiod is no more than 12 hours. A “long-day” is one in which the photoperiod is no less than 14 hours. Short-day plants are those that flower when the day length is less than a critical duration. Long-day plants are those that only flower when the photoperiod is greater than a critical duration. Day-neutral plants are those that flower regardless of photoperiod. Plants that flower in response to photoperiod may have a facultative or obligate response. A facultative response means that a plant will eventually flower regardless of photoperiod, but will flower faster if grown under a particular photoperiod. An obligate response means that the plant will only flower if grown under a certain photoperiod. Main article: Photosynthetically active radiation Weighting factor for photosynthesis. The photon-weighted curve is for converting PPFD to YPF; the energy-weighted curve is for weighting PAR expressed in watts or joules. Lux and lumens are commonly used to measure light levels, but they are photometric units which measure the intensity of light as perceived by the human eye. The spectral levels of light that can be used by plants for photosynthesis is similar to, but not the same as what's measured by lumens. Therefore, when it comes to measuring the amount of light available to plants for photosynthesis, biologists often measure the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) received by a plant. PAR designates the spectral range of solar radiation from 400 to 700 nanometers, which generally corresponds to the spectral range that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis. The irradiance of PAR can be expressed in units of energy flux (W/m2), which is relevant in energy-balance considerations for photosynthetic organisms. However, photosynthesis is a quantum process and the chemical reactions of photosynthesis are more dependent on the number of photons than the amount of energy contained in the photons. Therefore, plant biologists often quantify PAR using the number of photons in the 400-700 nm range received by a surface for a specified amount of time, or the Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD). This is normally measured using mol m−2s−1. According to one manufacturer of grow lights, plants require at least light levels between 100 and 800 μmol m−2s−1. For daylight-spectrum (5800 K) lamps, this would be equivalent to 5800 to 46,000 lm/m2.
Jump to navigation Jump to search Survival horror is a subgenre of video games inspired by horror fiction that focuses on survival of the character as the game tries to frighten players with either horror graphics or scary ambience. Although combat can be part of the gameplay, the player is made to feel less in control than in typical action games through limited ammunition, health, speed and vision, or through various obstructions of the player's interaction with the game mechanics. The player is also challenged to find items that unlock the path to new areas and solve puzzles to proceed in the game. Games make use of strong horror themes, like dark maze-like environments and unexpected attacks from enemies. The term "survival horror" was first used for the original Japanese release of Resident Evil in 1996, which was influenced by earlier games with a horror theme such as 1989's Sweet Home and 1992's Alone in the Dark. The name has been used since then for games with similar gameplay, and has been retroactively applied to earlier titles. Starting with the release of Resident Evil 4 in 2005, the genre began to incorporate more features from action games and more traditional first person and third-person shooter games. This has led game journalists to question whether long-standing survival horror franchises and more recent franchises have abandoned the genre and moved into a distinct genre often referred to as "action horror". Resident Evil (1996) named and defined the survival horror genre. Survival horror refers to a subgenre of action-adventure video games. The player character is vulnerable and under-armed, which puts emphasis on puzzle-solving and evasion, rather than violence. Games commonly challenge the player to manage their inventory and ration scarce resources such as ammunition. Another major theme throughout the genre is that of isolation. Typically, these games contain relatively few non-player characters and, as a result, frequently tell much of their story second-hand through the usage of journals, texts, or audio logs. While many action games feature lone protagonists versus swarms of enemies in a suspenseful environment, survival horror games are distinct from otherwise horror-themed action games. They tend to de-emphasize combat in favor of challenges such as hiding or running from enemies and solving puzzles. Still, it is not unusual for survival horror games to draw upon elements from first-person shooters, action-adventure games, or even role-playing games. According to IGN, "Survival horror is different from typical game genres in that it is not defined strictly by specific mechanics, but subject matter, tone, pacing, and design philosophy." Survival horror games are a subgenre of horror games, where the player is unable to fully prepare or arm their avatar. The player usually encounters several factors to make combat unattractive as a primary option, such as a limited number of weapons or invulnerable enemies, if weapons are available, their ammunition is sparser than in other games, and powerful weapons such as rocket launchers are rare, if even available at all. Thus, players are more vulnerable than in action games, and the hostility of the environment sets up a narrative where the odds are weighed decisively against the avatar. This shifts gameplay away from direct combat, and players must learn to evade enemies or turn the environment against them. Games try to enhance the experience of vulnerability by making the game single player rather than multiplayer, and by giving the player an avatar who is more frail than the typical action game hero. The survival horror genre is also known for other non-combat challenges, such as solving puzzles at certain locations in the game world, and collecting and managing an inventory of items. Areas of the game world will be off limits until the player gains certain items. Occasionally, levels are designed with alternative routes. Levels also challenge players with maze-like environments, which test the player's navigational skills. Levels are often designed as dark and claustrophobic (often making use of dim or shadowy light conditions and camera angles and sightlines which restrict visibility) to challenge the player and provide suspense, although games in the genre also make use of enormous spatial environments. A survival horror storyline usually involves the investigation and confrontation of horrific forces, and thus many games transform common elements from horror fiction into gameplay challenges. Early releases used camera angles seen in horror films, which allowed enemies to lurk in areas that are concealed from the player's view. Also, many survival horror games make use of off-screen sound or other warning cues to notify the player of impending danger. This feedback assists the player, but also creates feelings of anxiety and uncertainty. Games typically feature a variety of monsters with unique behavior patterns. Enemies can appear unexpectedly or suddenly, and levels are often designed with scripted sequences where enemies drop from the ceiling or crash through windows. Survival horror games, like many action-adventure games, are structured around the boss encounter where the player must confront a formidable opponent in order to advance to the next area. These boss encounters draw elements from antagonists seen in classic horror stories, and defeating the boss will advance the story of the game. The origins of the survival horror game can be traced back to earlier horror fiction. Archetypes have been linked to the books of H. P. Lovecraft, which include investigative narratives, or journeys through the depths. Comparisons have been made between Lovecraft's Great Old Ones and the boss encounters seen in many survival horror games. Themes of survival have also been traced to the slasher film subgenre, where the protagonist endures a confrontation with the ultimate antagonist. Another major influence on the genre is Japanese horror, including classical Noh theatre, the books of Edogawa Rampo, and Japanese cinema. The survival horror genre largely draws from both Western (mainly American) and Asian (mainly Japanese) traditions, with the Western approach to horror generally favouring action-oriented visceral horror while the Japanese approach tends to favour psychological horror. Nostromo was a survival horror game developed by Akira Takiguchi, a Tokyo University student and Taito contractor, for the PET 2001. It was ported to the PC-6001 by Masakuni Mitsuhashi (also known as Hiromi Ohba, later joined Game Arts), and published by ASCII in 1981, exclusively for Japan. Inspired by the 1980 stealth game Manibiki Shoujo and the 1979 sci-fi horror film Alien, the gameplay of Nostromo involved a player attempting to escape a spaceship while avoiding the sight of an invisible alien, which only becomes visible when appearing in front of the player. The gameplay also involved limited resources, where the player needs to collect certain items in order to escape the ship, and if certain required items are not available in the warehouse, the player is unable to escape and eventually has no choice but be killed getting caught by the alien. Another early example is the 1982 Atari 2600 game Haunted House. Gameplay is typical of future survival horror titles, as it emphasizes puzzle-solving and evasive action, rather than violence. The game uses monsters commonly featured in horror fiction, such as bats and ghosts, each of which has unique behaviors. Gameplay also incorporates item collection and inventory management, along with areas that are inaccessible until the appropriate item is found. Because it has several features that have been seen in later survival horror games, some reviewers have retroactively classified this game as the first in the genre. Malcolm Evans' 3D Monster Maze, released for the Sinclair ZX81 in 1982, is a first-person game without a weapon; the player cannot fight the enemy, a Tyrannosaurus Rex, so must escape by finding the exit before the monster finds him. The game states its distance and awareness of the player, further raising tension. Edge stated it was about "fear, panic, terror and facing an implacable, relentless foe who’s going to get you in the end" and considers it "the original survival horror game". Retro Gamer stated, "Survival horror may have been a phrase first coined by Resident Evil, but it could’ve easily applied to Malcolm Evans’ massive hit." 1982 saw the release of another early horror game, Bandai's Terror House, based on traditional Japanese horror, released as a Bandai LCD Solarpower handheld game. It was a solar-powered game with two LCD panels on top of each other to enable impressive scene changes and early pseudo-3D effects. The amount of ambient light the game received also had an effect on the gaming experience. Another early example of a horror game released that year was Sega's arcade game Monster Bash, which introduced classic horror-movie monsters, including the likes of Dracula, the Frankenstein monster, and werewolves, helping to lay the foundations for future survival horror games. Its 1986 remake Ghost House had gameplay specifically designed around the horror theme, featuring haunted house stages full of traps and secrets, and enemies that were fast, powerful, and intimidating, forcing players to learn the intricacies of the house and rely on their wits. Another game that has been cited as one of the first horror-themed games is Quicksilva's 1983 maze game Ant Attack. The latter half of the 1980s saw the release of several other horror-themed games, including Konami's Castlevania in 1986, and Sega's Kenseiden and Namco's Splatterhouse in 1988, though despite the macabre imagery of these games, their gameplay did not diverge much from other action games at the time. Splatterhouse in particular is notable for its large amount of bloodshed and terror, despite being an arcade beat 'em up with very little emphasis on survival. Shiryou Sensen: War of the Dead, a 1987 title developed by Fun Factory and published by Victor Music Industries for the MSX2, PC-88 and PC Engine platforms, is considered the first true survival horror game by Kevin Gifford (of GamePro and 1UP) and John Szczepaniak (of Retro Gamer and The Escapist). Designed by Katsuya Iwamoto, the game was a horror action RPG revolving around a female SWAT member Lila rescuing survivors in an isolated monster-infested town and bringing them to safety in a church. It has open environments like Dragon Quest and real-time side-view battles like Zelda II, though War of the Dead departed from other RPGs with its dark and creepy atmosphere expressed through the storytelling, graphics, and music. The player character has limited ammunition, though the player character can punch or use a knife if out of ammunition. The game also has a limited item inventory and crates to store items, and introduced a day-night cycle; the player can sleep to recover health, and a record is kept of how many days the player has survived. In 1988, War of the Dead Part 2 for the MSX2 and PC-88 abandoned the RPG elements of its predecessor, such as random encounters, and instead adopted action-adventure elements from Metal Gear while retaining the horror atmosphere of its predecessor. Sweet Home (1989), pictured above, was a role-playing video game often called the first survival horror and cited as the main inspiration for Resident Evil. However, the game often considered the first true survival horror, due to having the most influence on Resident Evil, was the 1989 release Sweet Home, for the Nintendo Entertainment System. It was created by Tokuro Fujiwara, who would later go on to create Resident Evil. Sweet Home's gameplay focused on solving a variety of puzzles using items stored in a limited inventory, while battling or escaping from horrifying creatures, which could lead to permanent death for any of the characters, thus creating tension and an emphasis on survival. It was also the first attempt at creating a scary and frightening storyline within a game, mainly told through scattered diary entries left behind fifty years before the events of the game. Developed by Capcom, the game would become the main inspiration behind their later release Resident Evil. Its horrific imagery prevented its release in the Western world, though its influence was felt through Resident Evil, which was originally intended to be a remake of the game. Some consider Sweet Home to be the first true survival horror game. In 1989, Electronic Arts published Project Firestart, developed by Dynamix. Unlike most other early games in the genre, it featured a science fiction setting inspired by the film Alien, but had gameplay that closely resembled later survival horror games in many ways. Fahs considers it the first to achieve "the kind of fully formed vision of survival horror as we know it today," citing its balance of action and adventure, limited ammunition, weak weaponry, vulnerable main character, feeling of isolation, storytelling through journals, graphic violence, and use of dynamically triggered music - all of which are characteristic elements of later games in the survival horror genre. Despite this, it is not likely a direct influence on later games in the genre and the similarities are largely an example of parallel thinking. Alone in the Dark (1992) is considered a forefather of the survival horror genre, and is sometimes called a survival horror game in retrospect. In 1992, Infogrames released Alone in the Dark, which has been considered a forefather of the genre. The game featured a lone protagonist against hordes of monsters, and made use of traditional adventure game challenges such as puzzle-solving and finding hidden keys to new areas. Graphically, Alone in the Dark uses static prerendered camera views that were cinematic in nature. Although players had the ability to fight monsters as in action games, players also had the option to evade or block them. Many monsters could not be killed, and thus could only be dealt with using problem-solving abilities. The game also used the mechanism of notes and books as expository devices. Many of these elements were used in later survival horror games, and thus the game is credited with making the survival horror genre possible. In 1994, Riverhillsoft released Doctor Hauzer for the 3DO. Both the player character and the environment are rendered in polygons. The player can switch between three different perspectives: third-person, first-person, and overhead. In a departure from most survival horror games, Doctor Hauzer lacks any enemies; the main threat is instead the sentient house that the game takes place in, with the player having to survive the house's traps and solve puzzles. The sound of the player character's echoing footsteps change depending on the surface. In 1995, WARP's horror adventure game D featured a first-person perspective, CGI full-motion video, gameplay that consisted entirely of puzzle-solving, and taboo content such as cannibalism. The same year, Human Entertainment's Clock Tower was a survival horror game that employed point-and-click graphic adventure gameplay and a deadly stalker known as Scissorman that chases players throughout the game. The game introduced stealth game elements, and was unique for its lack of combat, with the player only able to run away or outsmart Scissorman in order to survive. It features up to nine different possible endings. The term "survival horror" was first used by Capcom to market their 1996 release, Resident Evil. It began as a remake of Sweet Home, borrowing various elements from the game, such as its mansion setting, puzzles, "opening door" load screen, death animations, multiple endings depending on which characters survive, dual character paths, individual character skills, limited item management, story told through diary entries and frescos, emphasis on atmosphere, and horrific imagery. Resident Evil also adopted several features seen in Alone in the Dark, notably its cinematic fixed camera angles and pre-rendered backdrops. The control scheme in Resident Evil also became a staple of the genre, and future titles imitated its challenge of rationing very limited resources and items. The game's commercial success is credited with helping the PlayStation become the dominant game console, and also led to a series of Resident Evil films. Many games have tried to replicate the successful formula seen in Resident Evil, and every subsequent survival horror game has arguably taken a stance in relation to it. The success of Resident Evil in 1996 was responsible for its template being used as the basis for a wave of successful survival horror games, many of which were referred to as "Resident Evil clones." The golden age of survival horror started by Resident Evil reached its peak around the turn of the millennium with Silent Hill, followed by a general decline a few years later. Among the Resident Evil clones at the time, there were several survival horror titles that stood out, such as Clock Tower (1996) and Clock Tower II: The Struggle Within (1998) for the PlayStation. These Clock Tower games proved to be hits, capitalizing on the success of Resident Evil while staying true to the graphic-adventure gameplay of the original Clock Tower rather than following the Resident Evil formula. Another survival horror title that differentiated itself was Corpse Party (1996), an indie, psychological horror adventure game created using the RPG Maker engine. Much like Clock Tower and later Haunting Ground (2005), the player characters in Corpse Party lack any means of defending themselves; the game also featured up to 20 possible endings. However, the game would not be released in Western markets until 2011. Another game similar to the Clock Tower series of games and Haunting Ground, which was also inspired by Resident Evil's success is the Korean game known as White Day: A Labyrinth Named School (2001), this game was reportedly so scary that the developers had to release several patches adding multiple difficulty options, the game was slated for localization in 2004 but was cancelled, building on its previous success in Korea and interest, a remake has been developed in 2015. Riverhillsoft's Overblood, released in 1996, is considered the first survival horror game to make use of a fully three-dimensional virtual environment. The Note in 1997 and Hellnight in 1998 experimented with using a real-time 3D first-person perspective rather than pre-rendered backgrounds like Resident Evil. In 1998, Capcom released the successful sequel Resident Evil 2, which series creator Shinji Mikami intended to tap into the classic notion of horror as "the ordinary made strange," thus rather than setting the game in a creepy mansion no one would visit, he wanted to use familiar urban settings transformed by the chaos of a viral outbreak. The game sold over five million copies, proving the popularity of survival horror. That year saw the release of Square's Parasite Eve, which combined elements from Resident Evil with the RPG gameplay of Final Fantasy. It was followed by a more action-based sequel, Parasite Eve II, in 1999. In 1998, Galerians discarded the use of guns in favour of psychic powers that make it difficult to fight more than one enemy at a time. Also in 1998, Blue Stinger was a fully 3D survival horror for the Dreamcast incorporating action elements from beat 'em up and shooter games. The Silent Hill series, pictured above, introduced a psychological horror style to the genre. The most renowned was Silent Hill 2 (2001), for its strong narrative. Konami's Silent Hill, released in 1999, drew heavily from Resident Evil while using realtime 3D environments in contrast to Resident Evil's pre-rendered graphics. Silent Hill in particular was praised for moving away from B movie horror elements to the psychological style seen in art house or Japanese horror films, due to the game's emphasis on a disturbing atmosphere rather than visceral horror. The game also featured stealth elements, making use of the fog to dodge enemies or turning off the flashlight to avoid detection. The original Silent Hill is considered one of the scariest games of all time, and the strong narrative from Silent Hill 2 in 2001 has made the Silent Hill series one of the most influential in the genre. According to IGN, the "golden age of survival horror came to a crescendo" with the release of Silent Hill. Also in 1999, Capcom released the original Dino Crisis, which was noted for incorporating certain elements from survival horror games. It was followed by a more action-based sequel, Dino Crisis 2, in 2000. Fatal Frame from 2001 was a unique entry into the genre, as the player explores a mansion and takes photographs of ghosts in order to defeat them. The Fatal Frame series has since gained a reputation as one of the most distinctive in the genre, with the first game in the series credited as one of the best-written survival horror games ever made, by UGO Networks. Meanwhile, Capcom incorporated shooter elements into several survival horror titles, such as 2000's Resident Evil Survivor which used both light gun shooter and first-person shooter elements, and 2003's Resident Evil: Dead Aim which used light gun and third-person shooter elements. Western developers began to return to the survival horror formula. The Thing from 2002 has been called a survival horror game, although it is distinct from other titles in the genre due to its emphasis on action, and the challenge of holding a team together. The 2004 title Doom 3 is sometimes categorized as survival horror, although it is considered an Americanized take on the genre due to the player's ability to directly confront monsters with weaponry. Thus, it is usually considered a first-person shooter with survival horror elements. Regardless, the genre's increased popularity led Western developers to incorporate horror elements into action games, rather than follow the Japanese survival style. Overall, the traditional survival horror genre continued to be dominated by Japanese designers and aesthetics. 2002's Clock Tower 3 eschewed the graphic adventure game formula seen in the original Clock Tower, and embraced full 3D survival horror gameplay. In 2003, Resident Evil Outbreak introduced a new gameplay element to the genre: online multiplayer and cooperative gameplay. Sony employed Silent Hill director Keiichiro Toyama to develop Siren. The game was released in 2004, and added unprecedented challenge to the genre by making the player mostly defenseless, thus making it vital to learn the enemy's patrol routes and hide from them. However, reviewers eventually criticized the traditional Japanese survival horror formula for becoming stagnant. As the console market drifted towards Western-style action games, players became impatient with the limited resources and cumbersome controls seen in Japanese titles such as Resident Evil Code: Veronica and Silent Hill 4: The Room. In recent years, developers have combined traditional survival horror gameplay with other concepts. Left 4 Dead (2008) fused survival horror with cooperative multiplayer and action. In 2005, Resident Evil 4 attempted to redefine the genre by emphasizing reflexes and precision aiming, broadening the gameplay with elements from the wider action genre. Its ambitions paid off, earning the title several Game of the Year awards for 2005, and the top rank on IGN's Readers' Picks Top 99 Games list. However, this also led some reviewers to suggest that the Resident Evil series had abandoned the survival horror genre, by demolishing the genre conventions that it had established. Other major survival horror series followed suit by developing their combat systems to feature more action, such as Silent Hill Homecoming, and the 2008 version of Alone in the Dark. These changes were part of an overall trend among console games to shift towards visceral action gameplay. These changes in gameplay have led some purists to suggest that the genre has deteriorated into the conventions of other action games. Jim Sterling suggests that the genre lost its core gameplay when it improved the combat interface, thus shifting the gameplay away from hiding and running towards direct combat. Leigh Alexander argues that this represents a shift towards more Western horror aesthetics, which emphasize action and gore rather than the psychological experience of Japanese horror. The original genre has persisted in one form or another. The 2005 release of F.E.A.R. was praised for both its atmospheric tension and fast action, successfully combining Japanese horror with cinematic action, while Dead Space from 2008 brought survival horror to a science fiction setting. However, critics argue that these titles represent the continuing trend away from pure survival horror and towards general action. The release of Left 4 Dead in 2008 helped popularize cooperative multiplayer among survival horror games, although it is mostly a first person shooter at its core. Meanwhile, the Fatal Frame series has remained true to the roots of the genre, even as Fatal Frame IV transitioned from the use of fixed cameras to an over-the-shoulder viewpoint. Also in 2009, Silent Hill made a transition to an over-the-shoulder viewpoint in Silent Hill: Shattered Memories. This Wii effort was, however, considered by most reviewers as a return to form for the series due to several developmental decisions taken by Climax Studios. This included the decision to openly break the fourth wall by psychologically profiling the player, and the decision to remove any weapons from the game, forcing the player to run whenever they see an enemy. Examples of independent survival horror games are the Penumbra series and Amnesia: The Dark Descent by Frictional Games, Nightfall: Escape by Zeenoh, Cry of Fear by Team Psykskallar and Slender: The Eight Pages, all of which were praised for creating a horrific setting and atmosphere without the overuse of violence or gore. In 2010, the cult game Deadly Premonition by Access Games was notable for introducing open world nonlinear gameplay and a comedy horror theme to the genre. Overall, game developers have continued to make and release survival horror games, and the genre continues to grow among independent video game developers. The Last of Us, released in 2013 by Naughty Dog, incorporated many horror elements into a third-person action game. Set twenty years after a pandemic plague, the player must use scarce ammo and distraction tactics to evade or kill malformed humans infected by a brain parasite, as well as dangerous survivalists. Shinji Mikami, the creator of the Resident Evil franchise, released his new survival horror game The Evil Within, in 2014. Mikami stated that his goal was to bring survival horror back to its roots (even though this is his last directorial work), as he was disappointed by recent survival horror games for having too much action. Sources:
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