Survival skills in La Mirada are techniques that a person may use in order to sustain life in any type of natural environment or built environment. These techniques are meant to provide basic necessities for human life which include water, food, and shelter. The skills also support proper knowledge and interactions with animals and plants to promote the sustaining of life over a period of time. Practicing with a survival suit An immersion suit, or survival suit is a special type of waterproof dry suit that protects the wearer from hypothermia from immersion in cold water, after abandoning a sinking or capsized vessel, especially in the open ocean.
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Survival skills are often associated with the need to survive in a disaster situation in La Mirada .
 Survival skills are often basic ideas and abilities that ancients invented and used themselves for thousands of years.
 Outdoor activities such as hiking, backpacking, horseback riding, fishing, and hunting all require basic wilderness survival skills, especially in handling emergency situations. Bush-craft and primitive living are most often self-implemented, but require many of the same skills.
Summer is for picnics, hikes, outdoor concerts, barbeques ... and enjoying the wilderness.Camping with family or friends can be a great way to spend a weekend or a week. But unlike picnics, outdoor concerts or barbeques, camping or hiking in wilderness areas can turn from a fun outing into a very scary experience in just a few hours or even minutes.As long as you stay within a recognized campground, you have very little to worry about. You can get rained or hailed on or wake up and find the temperature has dropped 20 degrees, but none of these is a life-threatening issue. Sure, you might get cold or wet but there's always a fresh change of clothes waiting in your camper or tent.When in the wilderness, the most important thing to remember is that nature is not always a kind, gentle mother. The morning can be warm and sunshiny with not a cloud in the sky. But that doesn't mean that by early afternoon, conditions won't have changed dramatically.How can you forecast bad weather? Wind is always a good indicator. You can determine wind direction by dropping a few leaves or blades of grass or by watching the tops of trees. Once you determine wind direction, you can predict the type of weather that is on its way. Rapidly shifting winds indicate an unsettled atmosphere and a likely change in the weather. Also, birds and insects fly lower to the ground than normal in heavy, moisture-laden air. This indicates that rain is likely. Most insect activity increases before a storm.The first thing you need to do if bad weather strikes is size up your surroundings. Is there any shelter nearby - a cave or rock overhang -- where you could take refuge from rain or lightning? Probably you already know this, but never use a tree as a lightning shelter. If you can't find decent shelter, it's better to be out in the open than under a tree. Just make as small a target of yourself as possible and wait for the lightning to go away.Next, remember that haste makes waste. Don't do anything quickly and without first thinking it out. The most tempting thing might be to hurry back to your campsite as fast as you can. But that might not be the best alternative.Consider all aspects of your situation before taking action. Is it snowing or hailing? How hard is the wind blowing? Do you have streams you must cross to get back to camp? Were there gullies along the way that rain could have turned into roaring little streams? If you move too quickly, you might become disoriented and not know which way to go. Plan what you intend to do before you do it. In some cases, the best answer might be to wait for the weather to clear, especially if you can find good shelter. If it looks as if you will have to spend the night where you are, start working on a fire and campsite well before it gets dark.What should you take with you? First, make sure you have a good supply of water. If you're in severe conditions such as very hot weather or are at a high elevation, increase your fluids intake. Dehydration can occur very quickly under these conditions. To treat dehydration, you need to replace the body fluids that are lost. You can do this with water, juice, soft drinks, tea and so forth.Second, make sure you take a waterproof jacket with a hood. I like the kind made of a breathable fabric as it can both keep you dry and wick moisture away from your body.Another good investment is a daypack. You can use one of these small, lightweight backpacks to carry your waterproof jacket, if necessary, and to hold the contents of a survival kit.Even though you think you may be hiking for just a few hours, it's also a good idea to carry a couple of energy bars and some other food packets. A good alternative to energy bars is a product usually called trail gorp. Gorp, which tastes much better than it sounds, consists of a mixture of nuts, raisins, and some other protein-rich ingredients such as those chocolate bits that don't melt in your hands.It's always good to have a pocketknife and some wooden matches in a waterproof matchbox. If by some unfortunate turn of events, you end up having to spend the night in the wilderness, matches can be a real life saver, literally.Taking a compass is also a good idea. Watch your directions as you follow a trail into the wilderness. That way, you'll always be able to find you way back to camp simply by reversing directions. I also suggest sun block, sunglasses and by all means, a hat to protect you from the sun and to keep your head dry in the event of rain or hail.Surviving bad weather doesn't have to be a panic-inducing experience - if you just think and plan ahead.
Jump to navigation Jump to search Progression-free survival (PFS) is "the length of time during and after the treatment of a disease, such as cancer, that a patient lives with the disease but it does not get worse". In oncology, PFS usually refers to situations in which a tumor is present, as demonstrated by laboratory testing, radiologic testing, or clinically. Similarly, "disease-free survival" is when patients have had operations and are left with no detectable disease. Time to progression (TTP) does not count patients who die from other causes but is otherwise a close equivalent to PFS (unless there are a large number of such events). The FDA gives separate definitions and prefers PFS. PFS is widely used in oncology. Since (as already said) it only applies to patients with inoperable disease[dubious – discuss] that are generally treated with drugs (chemotherapy, target therapies, etc.) it will mostly be considered in relation to drug treatment of cancer. A very important aspect is the definition of "progression" since this generally involves imaging techniques (plain radiograms, CT scans, MRI, PET scans, ultrasounds) or other aspects: biochemical progression may be defined on the basis of an increase in a tumor marker (such as CA125 for epithelial ovarian cancer or PSA for prostate cancer). At present any change in the radiological aspect of a lesion is defined according to RECIST criteria. But progression may also be due to the appearance of a new lesion originating from the same tumor or to the appearance of new cancer in the same organ or in a different organ, or due to unequivocal progression in 'non-target' lesions—such as pleural effusions, ascites, leptomeningeal disease etc. Progression-free survival is often used as an alternative to overall survival (OS): this is the most reliable endpoint in clinical studies, but it will only be available after a longer time than PFS. For this reason, especially when new drugs are tested, there is a pressure (that in some cases may be absolutely acceptable while in other cases may hide economical interests) to approve new drugs on the basis of PFS data rather than waiting for OS data. PFS is considered as a "surrogate" of OS: in some cancers the two elements are strictly related, but in others they are not. Several agents that may prolong PFS do not prolong OS. PFS may be considered as an endpoint in itself (the FDA and EMEA consider it such) in situations where overall survival endpoints may be not feasible, and where progression is likely or very likely to be related to symptomatology. Patient understanding of what prolongation of PFS means has not been evaluated robustly. In a time trade off study in renal cancer, physicians rated PFS the most important aspect of treatment, while for patients it fell below fatigue, hand foot syndrome, and other toxicities. <Park et al> There is an element that makes PFS a questionable endpoint: by definition it refers to the date on which progression is detected, and this means that it depends on which date a radiological evaluation (in most cases) is performed. If for any reason a CT scan is postponed by one week (because the machine is out of order, or the patients feels too bad to go to the hospital) PFS is unduly prolonged. On the other hand, PFS becomes more relevant than OS when in a randomized trial patients that progress while on treatment A are allowed to receive treatment B (these patients may "cross" from one arm of the study to the other). If treatment B is really more effective than treatment A it is probable that the OS of patients will be the same even if PFS may be very different. This happened for example in studies comparing tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) to standard chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring a mutation in EGF-receptor. Patients started on TKI had a much longer PFS, but since patients that started on chemotherapy were allowed to receive TKI on progression, OS was similar. The relationship between PFS and OS is altered in any case in which a successive treatment may influence survival. Unfortunately this does not happen very often for second-line treatment of cancer, and even less so for successive treatments. The advantage of measuring PFS over measuring OS is that PFS appears sooner than deaths, allowing faster trials and oncologists feel that PFS can give them a better idea of how the cancer is progressing during the course of treatment. Traditionally, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has required studies of OS rather than PFS to demonstrate that a drug is effective against cancer, but recently[when?] the FDA. has accepted PFS. The use of PFS for proof of effectiveness and regulatory approval is controversial. It is often used as a clinical endpoint in randomized controlled trials for cancer therapies. It is a metric frequently used by the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to evaluate the effectiveness of a cancer treatment. PFS has been postulated to be a better ("more pure") measure of efficacy in second-line clinical trials as it eliminates potential differential bias from prior or subsequent treatments. However, PFS improvements do not always result in corresponding improvements in overall survival, and the control of the disease may come at the biological expense of side effects from the treatment itself. This has been described as an example of the McNamara fallacy.
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